Phonology

Phonemes

Vowels
LetteralEnglish equivalentIPA-ASCIIX-SAMPAfeatures
---------------
adart (but more back)/A//A/low,bck,unr,vwl
âdart/a//a/low,cnt,unr,vwl
3 (or epsilon)bet/E//E/lmd,fnt,unr,vwl
elay/e//e/umd,fnt,unr,vwl
isee/i//i/hgh,fnt,unr,vwl
Ihit (but more back)/i"//1/hgh,cnt,unr,vwl
owar (but unrounded)/o-//7/mid,bck,unr,vwl
usoon (but unrounded)/u-//M/hgh,bck,unr,vwl
@an/@//@/mid,cnt,unr,vwl

Diphthongs starting with u or i are pronounced as if the first letter is not present. These do, however, influence the pronunciation of consonants. See below.

Vowel diagram
Diagram with IPA-ASCII symbols.

[ ] = unrounded

 front    central     back
 +-------+-------+-------+
  \[i]    \ [I]  |    [u]| high
   \       \     |       | semi-high
    \-------+----+-------|
     \[e]    \   |       | upper middle
      \       [@]|    [o]| middle
       \[3]----+-+-------| lower middle
        \       \|       |
         \     [â]    [a]| low
          +--------------+

Consonants
LetteralEnglish equivalentIPA-ASCIIfeatures
------------
ppie (not aspirated)/p/vls,blb,stp
alternatively: bet/b/vcd,blb,stp
alternatively: foe (but bilabial)/f/vls,blb,frc
mman/m/blb,nas
------------
t (1)tie (not aspirated)/t[/vls,dnt,stp
d (1)do/d[/vcd,dnt,stp
þ/s (1)thing/T/vls,dnt,frc
ð/z (1)this/D/vcd,dnt,frc
r/y (1)Spanish: pero/r/vcd,alv,apr
nno/n[/dnt,nas
------------
tltl (proceeding to lh) vls,dnt,stp
dldl (proceeding to l) vcd,dnt,stp
lhScottish: llewellyn/s<lat>/vls,alv,lat,frc
llh(voiced fricative l)/z<lat>/vcd,alv,lat,frc
llie/l/vcd,alv,lat
------------
tshchip/tS/
dzhjoe/dZ/
shship/S/vls,pla,frc
zhpleasure/Z/vcd,pla,frc
------------
t (2)RP: tune/c/vls,pal,stp
d (2)RP: dune/J/vcd,pal,stp
s/þ (2)so/s/vls,alv,frc
z/ð (2)zoo/z/vcd,alv,frc
y/r (2)you/j/vcd,pal,apr
nRP: new, Spanish: niño/n^/pal,nas
------------
ccan (not aspirated)/k/vls,vel,stp
ggo/g/vcd,vel,stp
x(voiceless velar fricative)/x/vls,vel,frc
ghTolkien: ghâsh/Q/vcd,vel,frc
R(uvular r)/r"/uvl,trl
ñring/N/vel,nas
------------
hhit/h/vls,glt,apr

Notes:

1) when followed by a back vowel (a, â, o, u or a diphthong starting with u)

2) when followed by a front vowel (3, e, I, i, @ or a diphthong starting with i), or when doubled at the end of a word by an underline.

Consonant series
The taksioy_ consider their consonants devided in six ``series''. Some letters are considered to fall into two of these series. Two of these series use the same spelling (but not the same transcription), see below. h does not belong to any series.
       +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
       | blb | dnt | lat | pla | pal | vel |
 +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | stp |  p  | t   | tl  | tsh | t   |  k  |
 |     +     +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 |     |     | d   | dl  | dzh | d   |  g  |
 +-----+     +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | frc |     | þ/s | lh  | sh  | s/þ |  x  |  h  |
 |     +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 |     |     | ð/z | llh | zh  | z/ð |  gh |
 +-----+-----+-----------+-----+-----+-----+
 | apr |     | r/y | l   |       y/r |  R  |
 +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | nas |  m  | n         |       n   |  ñ  |
 +-----+-----+-----------+-----+-----+-----+

Pronunciation guidelines

Consonants are never doubled. Vowels are always unrounded. The pronunciations p, b and f are considered variants of the same letter.

The letterals t, d, s/þ, z/ð and y/r deserve special attention. Their pronunciation depends on the letters immediately following it.

letterpositiondental (1)palatal (2)
------------
t+back vowelta, tâ, to, tutia, tiâ, tio, tiu
t+front voweltu3, tue, tuI, tui, tu@t3, te, tI, ti, t@
tfinal,+consonanttt_
d+back vowelda, dâ, do, dudia, diâ, dio, diu
d+front voweldu3, due, duI, dui, du@d3, de, dI, di, d@
dfinal,+consonantdd_
s/þ+back vowelþa, þâ, þo, þusia, siâ, sio, siu
s/þ+front vowelþu3, þue, þuI, þui, þu@s3, se, sI, si, s@
s/þfinal,+consonantþs_
z/ð+back vowelða, ðâ, ðo, ðuzia, ziâ, zio, ziu
z/ð+front vowelðu3, ðue, ðuI, ðui, ðu@z3, ze, zI, zi, z@
z/ðfinal,+consonantðz_
y/r+back vowelra, râ, ro, ruyia, yiâ, yio, yiu
y/r+front vowelru3, rue, ruI, rui, ru@y3, ye, yI, yi, y@
y/rfinal,+consonantry_

Transcription

Transcription partly reflects the change in pronunciation of the letterals t, d, s/þ, etc. by selecting between the transcriptions s and þ, etc.

Accents and stress

The primary accent is normally on the first syllable of a two-syllable word. The accent shifts to the last syllable in plural nouns. See the grammar for more details.


Author: René Uittenbogaard.