A Tour Through Pinuyo (II): Building Sentences

The subject of the sentence (nominative) is placed on the north side of the verb box. speak I

I speak.

An example with subjunctive/imperative mood. we (incl) go

Let us go.

The object of the sentence (accusative) is placed on the south side of the verb box. read you book

You read a book.

look at we (incl) church

We look at the church.

read he what

What is he reading?

God me listen hurray

Hurray, God listens to me!

have thick you my book

You have my thick book.

Indirect objects (dative) are placed on the west side of the verb. give I you

I give to you.

God speak we (incl)

We speak to God.

give who book you

Who is giving you the book?

give you me book big your

You give me your big book.

Some experience verbs do not have a subject, only an experiencer, which is put in the dative case.

God hears me.
(not: God listens to me.)

We see the church.
(not: We look at the church.)

The object of the referentive is placed on the east side of the verb. think we (incl) you

We think about you.

  speak tree I

He speaks about a tree.

speak he me what

What is he talking to me about?

The object of the locative is placed in a diamond.
The locative box may be placed in any suitable space, but preferably not in one of the spaces reserved for nominative, accusative, dative or referentive.
read we (incl) you

We are reading at/near you.

Locative combined with adverb. The locative is also used as temporative. work we (incl) not Sunday

We do not work on Sundays.

  read! I book Sunday

Let me read a book on Sunday.

Locative boxes may be connected to a noun directly, if it indicates the location of the thing or person rather than the location of the action. you where

Where are you?

An elative box is trapezoid, with the long side at the bottom. An elative box can be placed in the same location that a locative box can. go we (incl) church

We come out of/from the church.

  walk you from who

Who do you come from?

go he where

Where is he coming from?

The illative/allative is formed using a trapezoid with the long side at the top. go I house my

I am going to/towards my house.

you (pl) go! God

Go to God!

go you who

Whom are you going to?

walk I tree

I walk towards the tree.

The instrumentive is indicated by a wavy box. Its placement is identical to that of the locative box. write I pencil

I write with a pencil.

Note that the placement of the genitive box in this example does not lead to ambiguities. It cannot have a referentive meaning, since it is not connected to the verb. we (excl) house look at eyes our (excl)

We look at the house with our eyes.

Assorted examples. give! you book green me my

Give me my green book!

we (incl) go! Sunday every church

Let us go to church every Sunday.

Example of a combined interrogative/imperative. every give man whom branches our

To whom should the man give all our branches?

Example of a combined vocative/imperative. If the subject of the imperative is addressed, the subject may be placed in a vocative box (octagon) and in the subject location (north). Lord listen voice my

Lord, listen to my voice.

Back to the Main page.

Take a Tour I: Word Types
Take a Tour II: Building Sentences
Take a Tour III: Joining Sentences I
Take a Tour IV: Joining Sentences II
Take a Tour V: Verb Tense, Aspect and Mood
Take a Tour VI: Participles
Alphabet (Pronunciation hints)
The Babel text
A thank you to Helmi

Author: René Uittenbogaard.