A Tour Through Pinuyo (I): Word Types

Nouns usually have circular boxes (exceptions will be shown later). gold


Articles are not written. tree

a/the tree

Plurals are formed by adding a '+' sign after the logogram (inside the box). deeds


Adjectives have rounded rectangular boxes and are connected to the noun.
Connections can be made by a single line, if the space would be to small to join the boxes directly.
The location of the adjective with respect to the noun is irrelevant.


book green

the green book

Cardinals are formed using the rules outlined on the alphabet page and behave like adjectives.
Ordinals are formed from cardinals by placing an accent mark to the top right of the cardinal. They, too, behave like adjectives.
cars five

five cars

question 23rd

the 23rd question

Interrogative pronouns are treated as nouns. who




Personal pronouns are treated as nouns.
Second person and third person pronouns take a plural with '+'.


Proper names are treated as nouns. Bobo


Pronunciation hints can be added to proper names. They are then placed in an extended noun box. David


The genitive case is indicated by placing the noun in an isosceles triangle.
The orientation of the triangle with respect to the noun is irrelevant, as long as the top angle is pointing towards the noun it belongs to.
leaves tree

the leaves of the tree

The possessive pronouns are indicated in the same way as the genitive. tree my

my tree

Genitives may be "chained" (as most constructs). leaves tree your

the leaves of your tree

The quantitative case is formed with an arrowhead-shaped box. six water liters

six liters of water

six bread slices

six slices of bread

    nine wine bottles

nine bottles of wine

Verbs in the indicative mood have rectangular boxes. to speak

(someone) speaks

A hexagonal box, pointed north-south indicates subjunctive/imperative mood. go!

(someone) go!

Adverbs of degree and focus are placed in hexagonal boxes, pointed east-west.
Adverbs of manner are placed in hexagonal boxes with two curly corners on the outside.
Adverbs of time and place will be shown later.




When adverbs are connected to a verb, this is preferably in one of the NE, SE, SW or NW quandrants (the N, S, E and W quadrants are reserved for other purposes, as we will see later).
Adverbs connect to adjectives in any position.
speak not

there is no speaking
(i.e. no one speaks)

read fast

(someone) reads fast

Adverbs that show the flow of the discourse are called discursives and are placed in a downward-pointing pentagon.   furthermore


Using a triangular box with curly corners, a verb can be transformed into a noun denoting a person who usually or professionally performs the indicated action.
Compare this to using the same logogram in a noun box, in which case it has a predefined meaning.

a theft


a thief

The vocative case is indicated by placing the noun in an octagon. Bobo


Interjections are placed in a hexagram. hurray


Vocatives may be combined with interjections at any side.
A vocative combined with an imperative must touch it at its north side, for reasons which we will see later.
mother hello

Hello, mother!

father listen!

Listen, father!

Back to the Main page.

Take a Tour I: Word Types
Take a Tour II: Building Sentences
Take a Tour III: Joining Sentences I
Take a Tour IV: Joining Sentences II
Take a Tour V: Verb Tense, Aspect and Mood
Take a Tour VI: Participles
Alphabet (Pronunciation hints)
The Babel text
A thank you to Helmi

Author: René Uittenbogaard.