Calénnawn Vocabulary

Note: square brackets denote a particular species/kind of the type mentioned, e.g. [mantis] = a particular kind of mantis

Articles

Calénnawn has the following articles:

epistemicdeonticpredicateobjecttranslation
subjectsubject





ooyðoso (s-)the (definite, countable, veridical)
- ey ðesea/some/no article (indefinite, countable, veridical)
hayðhfh (f-)some (concept/idea/mass/non-countable, veridical)
uuyðusuthe/a (nouns, non-veridical)
  lu the/a (verbs, non-veridical)

Articles take a final -n when the next word starts with a vowel, except s- and f-.

Personal pronouns

 epistemicdeonticobjectpossessive pronoun translation
 subjectsubject definiteindefinite







centrale(l), é-ílmonen,éndaiwhenI
 étuílmontuéntuiwhenI (humble)
 óssióngoóssocélof.we (excl. audience)







proximalsónntistubawsyo.you (singular)
 sónnastúnnabánnasyo.you (sg, affectionate)
 sóngostúngobánnasyo.you (sg, affect, to elder)
 muyímildvuyími.we (incl. (part of) audience)
 pospílowpéssostóbo.you (plural)







distalfabyutofbru.he/she (animate)
 zesussspiszis.it/this (inanimate)
 rayrálonronra.he/she/it (obviative)
 bésibúlorbiwviw.they







reflexivepáran/apraplúqo.my/your/him/her/itself, our/your/themselves
reciprocaltárqan/atraqtriq.my/your/him/her/itself, our/your/themselves, each other







interrogativeqoqenqon..what
 úqoúqenúqon..what (indirect, see Link words)
interrogative livingsíxosigútasísson..who
 úsixoúsigutaúsisson..who (indirect, see Link words)

sónnti is sometimes in colloquial speech pronounced as sónni. In colloquial speech, the object pronouns are sometimes replaced by the epistemic subject pronouns.

The possessive pronouns are used for ássi, bibúlme and ninálo relations.

óssi ífnaall of us
ífnavo óssievery one of us
Épanaleya s-viw ganúnii ífna.I see all ((their parents)).
Épanaleya s-viw ífnavo ganúnii.I see each of ((their parents)).
Épanaleya s-viw ífna ganúnii.I see ((all them))'s parents.
Épanaleya s-ífnavo viw ganúnii.I see ((each of them))'s parents.

Some verbs

activetranslation


adérpacompel
adúxankill so.
áduxandie
afíntisteer, navigate sth.
álminpay some amount (for sth.: sum)
anínowlearn
ánnateach so.
ánnevobtain
apécareplace
ássihave, possess sth.
assíloinclude sth.
astórigive birth to so.
ástoribe born
aválëurummage around/poke (Du. peuteren) (/a'val_ju/)
aygódarbother, annoy so.
áymopush (excrement, baby)
azówširun
babúpothink sth.
balmítehinder, obstruct so.
bánxaspeak to so.
báqindaapologize to so.
barúcaitch
básafall
báysido business with, bargain with so.
béltubuy sth. (from so.: num)
bibúlme"have" (of a body/body parts, also for physical state (e.g. hunger,illness))
bólðosound like sth.
bózaharm, damage, hurt so.
bríqatasleep
brúvicondole so.
cenntlike sth.
códdidecide sth.
cówešask so. (knowledge)
cówlogain, win sth.
cravagree to sth. (cf. qári)
crébasit
csívidance (to music: im)
cuxáfeassume sth.
ddámvotake sth.
ddútigowarn so. (for sth.: num)
dinhave benificial effect for sth./so.
dínoyrequest sth.
dógosupport so./sth. (lit.)
dópihonor
draaccompany so./sth.
dráhirguide, lead so.
drálameet so. (cf. líttu)
drodígrow sth. (tr)
dródigrow (intr)
dudáygepray
ðóygelose (note: win or find?)
fáslearrange, book, reserve sth.
fésnieat sth.
foycécocook, bake, heat sth.
fubúttcurse so./sth.
fuféltuwave, flutter, fly (of cloth) (Du wapperen)
fúrmoyclose, shut
gárpuscream, yell (at so)
gáwnacan, have the ability/skill/knowledge
grémamock, ridicule so.
gugúyðodestroy
halówbubehave, act
háqawait for sth.
hélowmix (mix A with B: hélow A.ACC im B; mix A and B: hélow A.ACC B.ACC pey; mix A into B: hélow A.ACC sum B)
héxiwhowl
hoforce/have/make so. (do something)
húnecscatter sth.
húrmework, labour
íccaspeak in language .. (¿ im ? ¿ using ?)
írcasell sth. (to so.: sum)
iséhultmelt sth.
ísommput (Fr. mettre; Sp. poner)
láftrutraise, augment (cf. laf)
láncalove, be in love with
láypehunt (derived: viláype: hunter; cf. lay)
léntaprotect so/sth. (from: num)
lésnifly (not: flee)
líddugather, meet (whence: meeting) (cf. drála)
lórilconfirm sth. (bánxa be lóril)
lúxcigive sth. (to so.: sum)
mágontswim/sail
malúfeed/make so. drink/quench so.'s thirst
masórbustand (masórbuduv: upright)
méllarstay
moltmove (intr.)
móglupraise
moránithank so.
móssellock sth.
múlahope
nalástuhave .. for name, be called ..
nalétudrink sth.
néstafeel sth. (actively, cf. gowpósse)
ninálokeep, hold, wear, carry, "have" sth.
núxecabe old .. (amount)
obóllogreet so.
óccoworry about sth.
órcenkick sth./so.
orézuflee from sth.
órmulnarrate
órpelpiece of clothing
órrulamride on sth., use sth. as vehicle for travel (cf. tolúyni)
owdíxonlook like sth.
óyminonsurrender
palémoneed sth.
panaléyasee sth.
panalútaknow sth (cf. spir)
páratulread sth.
pássenube somewhere, find itself (sw. or time)
pátimaintain (h fupáti: the maintenance)
patúlëhave faith in, trust
peybúcolisten to sth.
píllaargue, dispute with so.
plézoprefer
prohírube long/measure .. (amount)
púvuzavoid sth/so.
qállosucceed in sth.
qáncabaplay
qáriagree with so. (cf. crav)
qírbato tie sth. (to: supé)
qodcut sth.
qoydo
qopécioserve so.
qúmpatmesay sth.
rufómehit so.
rúntarespect so./sth.
sáfoleywake up
scoq[unit of length, approx. 131cm]
séffiðhappen, occur
sílgoshow, demonstrate
sémurwatch out, be careful
sináyvibe time (e.g. Sináyvi prézii _43: It is 27 hours; usually verb and subject are inverted)
síncowant sth.
sittcomply to sth.
smátegoto finish/end (intr)
snáfuunderstand sth.
snómo create, make
sobésselaugh
sotáwšto ripen
spirknow so. (cf. panalúta)
stábabe (express weather conditions, e.g. be rainy, be sunny, snow)
stónifind sth.
stúqifold (with fractions: fold in half etc.)
súmnotaste like sth.
šánxaplease so.
šálëejoin
šéqifcolor sth. (inv: be colored)
šíwvinrecord, write down
šówgalean (against sth.)
tánacome sw.
télbobuild sth.
teytínoplay (music)
tólpiset (celestial bodies, cf. víra)
tolúynitravel, journey (cf. órrulam)
toráddoperceive
tráfeintend sth.
trázoyawn
tredówccontrol, reign, rule over so./sth.
trísehurry, go fast
túggatflop
tunózashave
úliromblose one's way, get lost somewhere
úlnocry, weep
úlutrutlower, lessen, diminish (cf. úlu)
uncánohear so./sth.
urárouse sth.
úrnocomplete, finish sth.
útamohesitate
úyfabring/take sth.
váynalike, to love (as friends)
válalove, be compassionate with
válëemarry so.
véstican, have the opportunity
vírmuscare, frighten so.
vírarise (celestial bodies, cf. tólpi)
vómbebite
voyúdelive/dwell sw. (initiative aspect voyúdeday: settle sw.)
vúlmišdistress so. (Du benauwen)
vúvennchange sth.
xabástago to (= gowsupé)
xámbadknead sth.
xázenn grab sth/so.
xegónnalook at sth.
xepúnotry, attempt
xérderwalk
xocárrlie to so.
xortbrawl, fight
yúfesing sth.
zéfnatleave sw.
zeléttwrite sth.

Some nouns

abéssibeer
áboknife
áduxodeath
advégopresident
álbathief
alédonwheat
alíss (alííss)circle
altíno[district] (proper name)
anëáde night
ánnawnateacher
ánteðelplant
áqu"half-sibling" (half-brother or -sister)
atëósaplace, site, position
awl[currency unit], 1/216 of a ðugero
awnday
áwvivarplain
bánaman
bárecow
báreðarbeef (cf. ðar)
ba-šósboy
baméydaafternoon
baranúyabread
báqulot (h báqu: stock)
bénxotooth
blicpole,post
bólitolsound
bórmofish
brédizidebris
búrudung
calásso[feline predator]
caléntuy[planet] (proper name)
calénnawn[language] (proper name)
calílpimortar, cement
cásortcar
cétiwmmarket
cíffil (cíffiil)cooking pot/pan
cinówneforest, wood
císacbody (dead; corpse)
clóhehand
cloqleaf (of a tree); h cloq: foliage
crebone; (h cre: Du. gebeente)
cúsibe[humanoid biped, inhabiting Caléntuy]
cútufinger
daróšgod/deity (as name: God)
ddámmo[language, spoken on neighboring planet] (proper name)
 (Note: this spelling is an approximation of the correct pronunciation)
denðhat
dérceflesh (general term, cf. ðar)
déyhotcity (metropolis)
dindóyerequest (h dindóye: demand (e.g. for a product))
dišálimusic
dómmechair
doríddopolice
drénirac[light arial bike] (cf. fértirac)
drótaring (jewelry)
drúðerroom, chamber
ðarmeat (general term, cf. dérce)
ðátopit
ðéysichouse, domicile, dwelling (cf. vássi)
ðelcdanger
ðówba[dog-like mammal] (often held as pet)
ðúgero[basic currency unit], 216 iwn. also: h ðúgero: money
eláwball (from a game, or: ball-shaped object)
elëísusteed
éllud (éllid)napkin
elvelf (loan word)
énëig (énëiig)medicine (/'En_jig/, /'En_jyg/) (h bènxo-énëig: toothpaste)
éynuwind
éysiqebottle
fánëu (fánëi)fool
féncohunger (related to: fésni-sínco)
féspifood
fértirac[arial bike]
fítrosegment, part
fóððiraclass (of pupils)
folméllarstay
foltólpi sunset
folvíra sunrise
gálëa[strong alcoholic drink, from certain berries]
ganúniparent
gawðúhethug, criminal
gíxepriest
gluswagon; cart
gopósspain
gorgspice
grérawnthe next day (Fr. lendemain)
gróruacid (cf. grórutey)
gúvvospaceship
hádarcsky, heaven
heðérro umbilical cord
híndim (híndiim)river
hínnodmonster
hísulbranch
ifúrtaperson
ilósong
inártaking
indórmethrone
ingúded[the sun] (proper name)
irbócefever
írðotree
išinëéairplane
ísutoystatue
itánëa[the moon] (proper name)
itúccaanimal
ívolarstreet
lacíralife
-lay (liy)hunter (for a particular kind of animal, [animal]-láy, e.g. bòrmo-láy: fisherman)
lehíldepeople (a people)
letálpesoldier
létoarm
líttosnow
lóniðeyface
lúdaeye
lúna[earth's moon] (proper name) (loan word)
mánabook
márcamuturn
mástuvice
mátitable
maxáwðeoven
medútetower
mígerfather's sibling (uncle, aunt)
mittámenoon
miwpéto[onion-like vegetable]
mov-novoyúde[district] (proper name)
múttoprison
múvelgaalley
naléncothirst (related to: nalétu-sínco)
nawínamedia (tape, CD)
nélatjump
némabrick
nidíbaypub, café (slang)
níñcivdock
nóllaburden
nolótivacation, holiday
númmetland, area
nuxímmucommittee
odéðolord, nobleman/noblewoman
ógerdof[nut, the size of a walnut]
ohucmarvel
ónadsibling's child, nephew, niece
óndosortar, bitumen
óšabicommander (in army), [rank]
óttuwine
ówramother's sibling (uncle, aunt)
pácelti (páceltii)island
palúyxoenemy, opponent
panéðulake
pápinow[district] (proper name)
patúfitrust
páysasalt (cf. páysatey)
péðëesoul
péntafriend
péroa pair of glasses, spectacles (singular)
plúnacustomer
póðawdmessage
poháwsproduct
pránessibling
prézihour
qúbawater
qúnatime-period
ráca[mantis, also considered a delicacy]
rágoyear (orbit around ingúded)
ráliqdwarf (legendary creature)
ránti[tea]
ráyfazear
réfni (réfnii)woman
reyz (riyz)fishing net
re-šósgirl
rímeopportunity
rítuvegetable oil
rofíltuworld
rúnacousin (m or f)
sáxis (sáxiis)watch
scawn (sciwn)human
scípalavoice
scúgechild (of a parent; son/daughter)
séfnulive
sólleair
sowpblanket
smigfire
stenbaby (0-4 y.o. cf. šos)
súlirheart (organ)
šírawnthe previous day (Fr. veille)
šos (šis)child (young person, 4-13 y.o.; cf. sten)
šuléyge evening
šul-smátegoeve-end
tacsóy[sentient lizard]
tawgáfotax
tawvágumidwife
tëéledstyle
tépon (tépin)bird
télboxobuilding
teytaste (how something tastes)
tézadough
toléncorest
trogrock, stone
ttímbetspouse
ttizáfemilk
túlodoor
túycoc[plant with bitter, edible roots] (cf. túycot-tey)
úbbonrain
úceylmilitary general
úggumonth
úluboymorning
úrcimouth
úrðaEarth (proper name)
úrmedcup, mug, beaker
útiraddvillage, city (but not the metropolis)
úttacocoast
ušúluhead
úylinsummit, top
uylíddumeeting (derived from líddu)
úyxoshadow
uyxórtbrawl, fight (cf. xort)
vássi (vássii)home (cf. ðéysic)
vefóððuprice
ven (vin)"pal" (colloq.)
vérnosea
véqamocity-district, quarter
vil (viil)language
vónayglory
vóqusgold
vúhisugar (cf. vúhitey)
xanérocrane/derrick
xáyxan (xáytin)crate
xelcóyas[drug]
xézerp (xézirp)doll
xístaproblem, h xísta: trouble
xompstick, pole
xopásnobody (living, animal/human/cúsibe/tacsóy)
zúmobell

Some nouns: kinship terms

family members: ancestors

family members: descendants

In the list below, the following abbreviations are used:

  Father  [F]     Son     [S]
  Mother  [M]     Daugher [D]
  Brother [B]     Husband [H]
  Sister  [Z]     Wife    [W]

Most names for family members come in three variants: male, female, and genderless. The male and female variants are created from the genderless ones by prefixing ba- (from bána = man) or re- (from réfni = woman).

eI
ttímbetspouseba-ttímbethusbandre-ttímbetwife
pránessiblingba-pránes (bánes)brotherre-pránes (rénes)sister
scúgechildba-scúge (babúge)sonre-scúge (rúge)daughter
scùge-scúgegrandchildba-scùge-scúge (bágugu)grandsonre-scùge-scúge (régugu)granddaughter
  bágugugugreat-grandsonrégugugugreat-granddaughter
ganúniparentba-ganúni (bába)fatherre-ganúni (níni)mother
ganùni-ganúni (gága)grandparentba-ganùni-ganúni (bágaga)grandfatherre-ganùni-ganúni (régaga)grandmother
  bágagagagreat-grandfatherrégagagagreat-grandmother
ónadsibling's childba-ónadnephewre-ónadniece
mígerfather's siblingba-mígeruncle [FB]re-mígeraunt [FZ]
ówramother's siblingba-ówrauncle [MB]re-ówraaunt [MZ]
  ba-mìger-ttímbetuncle [FZH]re-mìger-ttímbetaunt [FBW]
  ba-òwra-ttímbetuncle [MZH]re-òwra-ttímbetaunt [MBW]
rúnacousin (m/f)ba-rúnacousin (m)re-rúnacousin (f)
áqu"half-sibling"ba-áquhalf-brotherre-áquhalf-sister
ganùni-ttímbetparent's spouseba-ganùni-ttímbetstepfatherre-ganùni-ttímbetstepmother
ttìmbet-scúgespouse's childba-ttìmbet-scúgestepsonre-ttìmbet-scúgestepdaughter
  ba-ganùni-ttìmbet-scúgestepbrotherre-ganùni-ttìmbet-scúgestepsister
  ba-ttìmbet-ganúnifather-in-lawre-ttìmbet-ganúnimother-in-law
  ba-scùge-ttímbetson-in-lawre-scùge-ttímbetdaughter-in-law
  ba-prànes-ttímbetbrother-in-law [ZH]re-prànes-ttímbetsister-in-law [BW]
  ba-ttìmbet-pránesbrother-in-law [HB or WB]re-ttìmbet-pránessister-in-law [HZ or WZ]
  šéra ba-ttímbetex-husbandšéra re-ttímbetex-wife
  glára ba-ttímbetfuture husbandglára re-ttímbetfuture wife
  élvo ba-ttímbetsecond husbandélvo re-ttímbetsecond wife
  íssazi ba-ttímbetlate husbandíssazi re-ttímbetlate wife

Names for other family members are derived analogously.

Some adjectives

álëumocomplicated, difficult
ancshort (in one dimension)
bélonlittle,small (in three dimensions)
blástabad
brácanatural
brucótobankrupt
búhuafraid
céddarlong (in one dimension)
compúðethorough
csocold
cúcoysilent,quiet
ðalbothick
elíso happy
eróyddudear
éyveyoung
fúrmoshut, closed
glárafuture (e.g. future wife)
gréranext (in time)
grévolprosperous
gróruteysour (cf. gróru)
hinátibright
íhimuold (age)
íssazidead
máforacurrent, present
misgood (meeting a certain (implicit) criterion)
móðëousual, habitual
móvlaadvanced, sophisticated
númawise
núqasincere
nusdifferent (cf. núsvo)
núsvoother (cf. nus)
obómpalong
ófpaangry
ófergood (ordained good, agreeable, pleasant; earned positive judgement)
óggustrong
ópalcnormal, common, regular, ordinary
páysateysalty (cf. páysa)
pélabeautiful
qánabig, large (in three dimensions)
réstomad, crazy
sámmafast
séfnuduvalive (derived, see Derivations)
šéraformer, ex-
šíraprevious (in time)
túycot-teybitter (cf. túycoc)
úlumubsad
úyfinsacred, holy
vicípecomfortable
vúcesome, any (i.e. irrelevant which one, not necessarily irrelevant in number)
vúhiteysweet (cf. vúhi)
xiwdnew
zettflat

Some adjectives: colors

mostdarkred
ámallightred/orange
ogáboyellow
frínelightgreen
bérdodarkgreen/seagreen
írnoycyan
órpablue
cúnnenidarkblue/indigo
rázinviolet
áycoswhite
rówpiblack


áffadark

Some degree markers

Derivations

no(r)-(inverse voice of verb) (use r only to prevent vowel cluster)


verb to noun:


fol-act of .. (action, gerund)
vi(n)-actor of .. (use n only to prevent vowel cluster)
uy(b)-event of .. (use b only to prevent vowel cluster)
-xoobject of ..


noun to verbí


lo-Xhaving a X (see grammar)


verb to adjective:


-duv-ing (active participle used as adjective)
-bov-ed (inverse participle used as adjective)


verb to preposition:


-nur-ing (active participle used as preposition or adverb)
-mor-ed (inverse participle used as preposition or adverb)


preposition to verb/noun:


gow-being located (see below)
lay-the locus at (see below)


noun to adjective:


-(y)ofrom material .. (e.g. trógo = stone (adj))


adjective to noun:


-ib--ness, abstractor (infix between last CV pair in word, e.g. númiba = wisdom)


-sinu-like


Some adverbs

Some prepositions

Numerals

numeralcardinalordinalsubset sizefractionalmultipliernoun
xx itemsxthx out of1/xthxfold
 quantifierquantifier
 x timesxth time







zerohortn/ahórt-tar (1)n/ahórppaš (1)horta
onetestésvotéstarcútes (entire)téspaštesa
twoelélvoéltarcúelélpašela
threestostóvostótarcústostópašstówa (1)
fourmatmátvomáttarcúmatmáppaš (1)mata
fivecrascrásvocrástarcúcrascráspašcrasa
ten (i.e. six)xoxóvoxótarcúxoxópašxówa (1)
a hundred (i.e. 36)uqítteuqíttevouqíttetarcúuqitteuqíttepaš
a thousand (i.e. 216)panóypanóyvopánoytarcúpanoypanóypaš
ten thousand (i.e. 1296)feférrfeférrvofeférrtarcúfeferrfeférrpaš
a hundred thousand (i.e. 7776)faltfáltvofált-tar (1)cúfaltfálppaš (1)






all/everyífna (all)ífnavo (every)ífnatar (6)n/an/a
too many *fefévo (8)fétarcúfe (3)fépaš
manyváhan/aváhatarcúvaha (2)váhapaš
enough *otótvoót-tar (1)cúotótpaš
fewfuldn/afúldtarcúfuld (5)fúlppaš (1)
not enough, too fewhúyfehúyfevohúyfetarcúhuyfe (4)húyfepaš
lastn/aólmoólmotarn/an/a
some (unspec.)niwtníwtvoníwt-tar (1)cúniwtníwtpaš
at least oneérnuérnuvoérnutarcúernu (7)érnupaš
how many/whichqíði (how many)qíðivo (which)qíðitarcúqiðiqíðipaš

numeralmass amountsub-amount size



nohiðhíðtar
allpídupídutar
too muchmórimóritar
muchlafláftar
enoughšanšántar
littleúluúlutar
not enough,too littlehúymorihúymoritar
some (unspec.)baybáytar
at least some..
how muchsirsírtar

 1.  irregular spelling
 2.  = a small part
 3.  = too small a part
 4.  = too big a part
 5.  = a big part
 6.  = all of
 7.  = at most all of
 8.  = the one[s] that is/are too many

cardinal (amount)


mána qíðihow many books (sg form)
máni crasfive books
mána cúelhalf a book
máni cúel stoone and a half book


ordinal (index)


qíðivo mánawhich (kiu) book
crásvo mánathe fifth book


subset (amount)


qíðitar mánihow many of (the) books
crástar mánifive of (the) books


subset (amount) of cardinal (amount)


qíðitar máni xohow many of (the) _ten books
crástar máni xofive of (the) _ten books


ordinal (index) cardinal (amount)


qíðivo máni xowhich _ten books
tésvo máni xothe first _ten books
crásvo máni xothe fifth _ten books
ólmo máni xothe last _ten books
ólmo xothe last ten
stóvo mána cúelthe third half-book
stóvo cúelthe third half


ordinal (index) subset (amount) of cardinal (amount)


qíðivo crástar máni xowhich five of (the) _ten books
élvo crástar máni xothe second five of _ten books
ólmo crástar máni xothe last five of _ten books
ólmotar máni xothe last (i.e. one) of _ten books
ólmo níwt-tar máni xothe last few of _ten books


qíðivo téstar máni xowhich one of (the) _ten books
(= qíðivo tar máni xo)
crásvo téstar máni xothe fifth of (the) _ten books
(= crásvo tar máni xo)
ífnavo téstar bésievery one of them

mass amounts
fh qúba úlua little water
f-úlutar qúbaa little of the water
ðúgero lafmuch money

See the grammar document for the more complex numbers.

Miscellaneous words

Words ending in -vo or -va are the polite forms.

áseryes (older, archaic form)
áyes (common form)
ásera"yeah" (colloquial form)
áma, ásermacertainly, of course
áhiindeed, it's not (as a reply to a negative question)
áhaon the contrary, it is (Fr. si) (as a reply to a negative question)
ónddimaybe, probably, possibly
hino, not (negation)
hesnot .. (tag)
huythe (scalar) opposite of .. (tag)
lëumeta-no (the question is based on an incorrect assumption)


bánosir, mister
réfnomadam, mrs, miss
ábanoyes, sir
árefnoyes, madam


lélahere you are, voilà (giving something, informal form)
eqopéciohere you are (alternative informal form)
emoráni(vo)thank you
moráni(vo)thank you
émoraniI thank / thank you (colloquial form)
hímorani(vo)no, thanks (informal/polite form)
huynóllayou're welcome, "no burden"
edínoy(vo)please (requesting, not asking) (informal/polite form)
édinoyI request / please (colloquial form)
ésittall right, okay, "will comply"
sittall right (colloquial form)
sitt-na?1all right?
ebáqinda(vo)I apologize, sorry, excuse me (informal/polite form)
ébaqinda(vo)ditto (alternative form)
báqinda, qíndasorry (colloquial form)
búleapology accepted, okay
wélaaww (compassionate)
bébo wow! (awe/surprize)
búrroI hate this, "f*ck it"
ebrúvi(vo)I'm sorry (pity, compassionate)
ébruvi(vo)I'm sorry (pity, compassionate)
fásle(va)-qoyplease confirm, "agree?"
elórilconfirmed, roger (not -vo! See lóril)
élorilI confirm
nóbuwell done!
hh /@:/hesitation noise: uhm


obóllo(vo)greetings (common/polite form)
bóllo, -óllohello, hi (common/colloquial form)
éylo, -éylobye
áyvo, -áyvowelcome


eyhey (drawing attention)
ayhey (surprized)
awow (pain)
ótahurray
?help!


mimá(start focus)
mi(end focus)


-(a)va, áva(honorative to subject)
-(a)vo(honorative to object)


Correlatives

living beingnon-living thinglocationtime




cassomeone unspec.fondsometh. unspec.beysomewhere unsp.golsometime unsp.
ícassomeone knownífondsometh. knowníbeysomewhere knownígolsometime known
pur cassomeone unknownpur fondsometh. unknownpur beysomewh. unkn.pur golsometime unkn.
vúce casanyone irrelev.vúce fondanything irrel.vúce beyanywhere irrelev.vúce golany time irrelev.
nus cassomeone elsenus fondsometh. elsenus beysomewhere elsenus golsome other time
cas hortno onefond hortnothingbey hortnowheregol hortnever
cas tesexactly onefond tesone thingbey tesat one placegol tesat one time
cas ífnaeveryonefond ífnaeverythingbey ífnaeverywheregol ífnaalways
cas qíðihow many pplfond qíðihow manybey qíðihow many placesgol qíðihow often
síxowhoqowhatlómowheregannwhen
    sulómowhere to  
    nulómowhere from  




fahe/shezeitzaheremáfonow
rayhe/she  detherešeback then
bésithey  suzáhitheršijust now
    sudéthitherglalater, then (fut.)
    nuzáhencegrein the immediate future
    nudéthence

cardinal amountinstancemass amountkind of




niwtsome unspecif.níwtvosome unspecif.baysome unspecif.úxisome kind unspec.
íniwtsome knowníníwtvosome knowníbaysome knowníuxisome kind known
pur niwtsome unknownpur níwtvosome unknownpur baysome unknownpur úxisome kind unknown
vúce niwtany irrelev.vúce níwtvoany irrelev.vúce bayany irrelev.vúce úxiany kind irrelev.
nusdifferentnúsvoanothernus baysome othernus úxisome other kind
hortnon/an/ahiðnoúxi hortno kind
tesexactly onetésvofirstn/an/aúxi tesone kind
ífnaallífnavoeverypíduallúxi ífnaall kinds
qíðihow manyqíðivowhichsirhow muchobémewhat kind




see numerals zévothis    
  ráyvothat    

mannerreason


culin some unspec. wayhúgefor some unspec. reason
ículin a known wayíhugefor a known reason
pur culin some unknown waypur húgefor some unknown reason
vúce culin any irrelev. wayvúce húgefor any irrelev. reason
nus culin some other waynus húgefor some other reason
cul hortin no wayhúge hortfor no reason
cul ífnain all wayshúge ífnafor all reasons
mlohowgírnewhy


xúylovlike thisvéldisfor this reason

Sónnti panaléya-na tof pur bey?Have you seen him anywhere? (Here, pur bey
 is used because it is probably not irrelevant
 where the person was seen: it is just unknown).
ífnatar qúbaall of the water
Énaletu sh qúba hið.I drank no water.
qíðivo qúbawhich water was gone? (Here, qíðivo is used as the
 speaker will probably not mean qíðitar)
El or xabástaday nus bey hort.I am going nowhere else.

Notes:

1. pur was etymologically derived from panalúta·mor

2. For declinations of qo and síxo and derivatives, see also Personal pronouns.

3. See also the section Link words for link words derived from the question correlatives.

Link words

See the grammar for the rules on how to use these link words.

Note: the + in the next diagrams indicates possible prefixing of prepositions.

  1. appositive
  2. 1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPP




    subjectbeba+bwoy
    objectpéloyon+voy
    PP+bwam+bam+vóyo


    finish structurenóri

  3. a. restrictive

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPP




    subjectfesfésba+fwar
    objectfélofon+far
    PP+fwem+fem+fáro


    finish structureme

    b. incidental

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPP




    subjectleslésba+dwar
    objectlélolon+dar
    PP+dwaf+daf+dáro


    finish structurege

  4. a. Fact abstraction

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPPabstraction





    subjectn/an/an/azúno
    objectn/an/an/azóno
    PPn/an/an/a+zóro
    abstractionzúneszónes+zóresn/a


    finish structuremúha

    b. Event abstraction

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPPabstraction





    subjectn/an/an/aémmo
    objectn/an/an/aúmmo
    PPn/an/an/a+úrmo
    abstractionémmiúmmi+úrmin/a


    finish structureqim

    c. Degree abstraction

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPPabstraction





    subjectn/an/an/aríðëoš
    objectn/an/an/arúdëoš
    PPn/an/an/a+ródoš
    abstractionrídor rúgor +rógorn/a


    finish structureqow

  5. indirect questions
  6. These are not further divided into appositive, restrictive, or incidental.

    1st \ 2ndsubjectobjectPPquestion





    subjectn/an/an/aámlo
    objectn/an/an/aúmlo
    PPn/an/an/a+ínemlo
    questionáymloúymlo+ímlo5, see below


    finish structuretsuc

     [s|q][o|q][p|q][q|s][q|o][q|p]







    who (epist. subj.)ásixoúsixo+ínemloáysixoúysixo+ísixo
    who (deont. subj.)ásigutaúsiguta+ínesigutaáysigutaúysiguta+ísiguta
    who (obj.)ásissonúsisson+ínesissonáysissonúysisson+ísisson
    what (epist. subj.)áqoúqo+íneqoáyqoúyqo+íqo
    what (deont. subj.)áqenúqen+íneqenáyqenúyqen+íqen
    what (obj.)áqonúqon+íneqonáyqonúyqon+íqon
    whereálomoúlomo+ínelomoáylomoúylomo+ílomo
    where toásulomoúsulomo+ínesulomoáysulomoúysulomo+ísulomo
    where frománulomoúnulomo+ínenulomoáynulomoúynulomo+ínulomo
    whenágannúgann+ínegannáygannúygann+ígann
    how manyáqiðiúqiði+íneqiðiáyqiðiúyqiði+íqiði
    whicháqiðivoúqiðivo+íneqiðivoáyqiðivoúyqiðivo+íqiðivo
    how muchásirúsir+ínesiráysirúysir+ísir
    what kindábemeúbeme+ínebemeáybemeúybeme+íbeme
    howámloúmlo+ínemloáymloúymlo+ímlo
    whyágirneúgirne+ínegirneáygirneúygirne+ígirne
    truth questionánayúnay+ínenayáynayúynay+ínay

     [q|q.a][q|q.r][q|q.i][r.q|q][i.q|q]






    who (epist. subj.)búsixofésixomésixofáysixoméysixo
    who (deont. subj.)búsigutafésigutamésigutafáysigutaméysiguta
    who (obj.)búsissonfésissonmésissonfáysissonméysisson
    what (epist. subj.)búqoféqoméqofáyqoméyqo
    what (deont. subj.)búqenféqenméqenfáyqenméyqen
    what (obj.)búqonféqonméqonfáyqonméyqon
    wherebúlomofélomomélomofáylomoméylomo
    where tobúsulomofésulomomésulomofáysulomoméysulomo
    where frombúnulomofénulomoménulomofáynulomoméynulomo
    whenbúgannfégannmégannfáygannméygann
    how manybúqiðiféqiðiméqiðifáyqiðiméyqiði
    whichbúqiðivoféqiðivoméqiðivofáyqiðivoméyqiðivo
    how muchbúsirfésirmésirfáysirméysir
    what kindbúbemefébememébemefáybememéybeme
    howbúmlofémlomémlofáymloméymlo
    whybúgirnefégirnemégirnefáygirneméygirne
    truth questionbúnayfénayménayfáynayméynay

    Ésnafu úmlo sónnti bríqata.I understand how [o|q] you sleep.
    Ésnafu úgirne sónnti bríqata.I understand why [o|q] you sleep.
    Épanaluta úsisson sonnti panaléya (sisson).I know who [o|q] you see.
    Épanaluta úqon sonnti panaléyas (qon).I know what [o|q] you see.
    Épanaluta úsixo še gowsuí ðéysic.I know who [o|q] went into the house.
    Anc še babúpos tay-ínemlo bru re-ganúni še áduxan.Anc thought about how [p|q] her mother died.
    Sónnti spíxo panalúta únay sónntigla zéfnat.Only you know whether [o|q] you will leave.


Author: René Uittenbogaard. The central/proximal/distal nomenclature was taken from Xathmel, by Paul Blake.

Conversion date: 2008-05-17

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